A website is created using different languages, technologies, and programs. HTML and XML are two of the widely used web development languages.
XML and HTML are both markup languages but very different in functionality and uses. In this article, we will discuss XML vs HTML in detail.
1 What is XML?
XML is an Extensible Markup Language. It is a widely used web language for storing and transferring data between applications and servers. It is a markup language that humans or machines can easily understand.
Unlike HTML, XML allows users to create their tags and is self-describing. It allows users to create a custom markup language.
<?XML version=”1.0″ encoding=”ISO-8859-1″?>
<body>Family Dinner Tonight – 10pm </body>
The first line describes the XML version and encoding. The second line describes the elements of the document which is a note. The following four lines define custom tags to, from, heading, and body. And the last line ends the root element (
XML is used to wrap data around the tags; As above, the remainder will be wrapped around the note tag. Details such as To, From, data type, and the actual dates are wrapped around the To, From, Heading, and Body tags, respectively.
XML is code sensitive. One of the most significant benefits of XML is that it allows for easy storage and transmission of data. It is easy to program and supports multilingual tests and Unicode.
Characteristics of XML
- XML helps store data efficiently and transfer it from one place to another.
- It has a well-structured format and is comparatively difficult to learn.
- Unlike HTML, XML tags are not predefined; they are user-defined, so there is no need to memorize them.
- All platforms and applications support XML.
- Due to its dynamic nature, it can be used to create non-static web pages.
2 What is HTML?
HTML is a hypertext markup language designed to create web pages and applications. It is a markup language with predefined tags. Unlike XML, it doesn’t help in transferring data, but in displaying data.
In HTML, any page can be linked to another by hyperlinks. HTML enables graphics, videos, sounds or other multimedia content to be efficiently embedded on web pages.
HTML consists of predefined tags and attributes. The tags are enclosed in angle brackets (<>) and attributes are enclosed in quotation marks.
<p>This is a paragraph.</p> //Here <p> is a paragraph tag.
<p text-align=’center’> </p>
Here align is an attribute and is defined in quotes that align the paragraph as defined
HTML is not case-sensitive and will show errors or typos, which means that even if there is a syntax error, it won’t affect the code and will show it on the webpage instead.
The most significant benefit of HTML is that it is easy to understand and learn, and is a widely used markup language. Most web pages you see are developed using HTML. The language requires no software or additional application, and codes can be written using text editors such as Notepad. It allows storing large files with the cache memory feature.
Although HTML is simple, it requires a lot of coding to develop web pages or applications that sometimes get complex. It creates static web pages but cannot create dynamic pages.
Features of HTML
- HTML is a simple language; it doesn’t take a coding expert to learn. The HTML codes are easy for everyone to understand.
- It is an excellent way to learn to program for a beginner who wants to learn code.
- HTML is the standard language for web development.
- It works on almost all browsers, platforms, and applications.
- HTML is not case sensitive and is rarely affected by typos or syntax errors.
- It can be integrated with other web languages like XML, CSS, and backend coding languages.
- The language quickly adds images, graphics, videos, and sounds to web pages.
3 XML vs. HTML
The main difference between XML and HTML is that HTML is used specifically for designing web pages and displaying data while XML is for data transport and storage. The following table explains XML and HTML in detail:
|language||XML is an Extensible Markup Language similar to HTML but without predefined tags.||HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language.|
|Housing||XML is case-sensitive.||HTML is case insensitive.|
|Tags||XML allows the creation of tags as needed or requirements.||HTML has predefined tags that can be used to create web pages.|
|purpose||Data Storage and Transmission.||Data display or presentation.|
|mistake||Errors can impede data transmission or storage and must therefore be corrected.||It ignores minor errors.|
|nests||Nesting should be done appropriately to avoid errors.||It doesn’t affect the code if nesting isn’t done correctly.|
|end tags||Some tags have no end and closing tag like z, etc.||In HTML, each tag has an ending tag and a closing tag.|
|quotes||XML requires quotes around attribute values.||HTML does not require quotation marks.|
|object support||In XML, objects must be expressed using conventions such as attributes and elements.||HTML has native object support.|
|size||Relatively large document size due to long codes and formatting.||Relatively small document size due to short syntax and formatted text.|
|spaces||Spaces can be used in XML.||Spaces should not be used in HTML.|
|formatting||XML requires significant effort to map application types to XML attributes and elements.||Provide direct data mapping with the application.|
|learning curve||XML is complex because you need to learn technologies like schema, XML DOM, XPath, etc.||HTML is comparatively easy to learn.|
4 Use Cases of XML and HTML
Like the features, both markup languages differ in their application.
Use cases of XML
- Web Publishing: XML is used to create web pages that are interactive and user-customizable. It helps to create more intuitive e-shopping applications. It helps to store and transfer data instead of displaying it yourself.
- Web Search and Web Task Automation: XML makes web search very easy by defining the type of data in its document.
- Common Applications: The language is famous for applications and devices for storing, transferring, and displaying data.
- E-Business: eBusiness implements the XML language to make EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) more accessible for information exchange and all types of transactions.
- Pervasive Computing: XML provides structured and transmittable types of information for display on wireless computing devices such as cell phones, PDAs, etc.
- Metadata Applications: XML allows metadata to be expressed in a portable and reusable format.
Use cases of HTML
- Web Page Development: HTML is widely used for web page development. It is used to display data.
- Creation of web documents: HTML also helps in the creation of documents on the Internet. The web document consists of three parts title, header, and body which are designed and built using HTML tags.
- Internet Navigation: This is one of the outstanding and revolutionary uses of HTML. Hyperlinks and hypertext can be used to link websites to one another. It allows users to easily navigate between web pages and websites.
- Cutting-Edge Features: HTML introduces some of the latest features and trends in website building.
- Client-side storage: HTML5, the latest version of HTML, is used for developing client-side storage using localStorage and IndexDB.
- Leverage Offline Features: HTML can help store browsing data even when the internet is not connected to its caching feature.
- Data Entry Support: The HTML5 standard and several APIs are also used to support data entry.
HTML and XML create web pages and work together for various applications. HTML is used to display data and describe the structure of a web page, while XML is used to store and transmit the data. HTML is a simple language with predefined tags and attributes. XML is a standard language. Both are markup languages and are essential for any website or application development.